The New England Journal of Medicine, March 30, 2006
Safety and Immunogenicity of an Inactivated Subvirion Influenza A
(H5N1) Vaccine,
J.J. Treanor and Others [Free full text of this article]

Vaccines against Avian Influenza — A Race against Time G.A. Poland, [Free full text of this article]

New England Journal of Medicine March 30, 2006 editorial (retrieved 2006mar29)

The editorial has useful references for the Congressional study and definition of pandemic. Pam

A study by the Congressional Budget Office estimates that the consequences of a severe pandemic could, in the United States, include 200 million people infected, 90 million clinically ill, and 2 million dead…. resulting in a decrease in the gross domestic product of 5 percent. Furthermore, 18 million to 45 million people would require outpatient care, and economic costs would total approximately $675 billion.

The virus is close to meeting the criteria for a pandemic virus — one that is new, can cause human illness, and can be transmitted from human to human — and the world is currently in phase three of the six WHO phases of alert for pandemic influenza (higher numbers represent greater seriousness). Influenza A (H5N1) is not yet pandemic because of a single factor: the inefficiency of human-to-human transmission….