Background: In South Africa, respiratory protective equipment is often the primary control method used to protect workers. This preliminary study investigated how well a common disposable P2 respirator fitted persons with a range of facial dimensions. Methods: Quantitative respirator fit tests were performed on 29 volunteers from different racial, gender and face size groups. Two facial dimensions width (bizygomatic) and length (menton-sellion) were measured for all participants. Results: In this study 13.8% of the participants demonstrated a successful fit with the medium sized mask. These included participants from three different racial and both gender groups. The large percentage of failed fit tests (86%) indicates that reliance on off-the-shelf respirators could be problematic in South Africa. Conclusions: The limitations of this preliminary study notwithstanding, respirator fit appear to be associated with individual facial characteristics and are not specific to racial/ethnic or gender characteristics.
This is one reason why I think the Totobobo mask is so useful. It is much easier to modify the mask to fit different faces. The Totobobo mask really needs to be tested in a place like Alaska where we have faces from many different populations. See the Flickr set at Respirators masks for pandemics, volcanoes, dust, woodworking, cycling
Primary entry about respirators is Masks — Types, Choosing (PPE)
[Alaska, analytical anthropology]
The oldest cremated human remains ever discovered in northern North America have been found at a site near the Tanana River in central Alaska. The 3-year-old is only the second ice-age child discovered on the continent, say UAF researchers.
Forty years ago on February 19, 1971, an Alaska Army National Guard aircraft crashed at the 14,880 foot level of Mt. Sanford, 200 miles east of Anchorage in the Wrangell Mountains. The aircraft was an Army U8-D and was to be the first multi-engine aircraft for the Alaska Army Guard. It was on a ferry flight to Ft Richardson, Alaska from Fresno, California when it crashed. The crew was MAJ [Major] Steve W. Henault, US Army; LTC [Lieutenant Colonel] LTC William Caldwell (Bill), AKARNG; and MSG [Master Sergeant] Herbert Alex (Herb), AKARNG. All died in the crash. One rescuer also succumbed in the attempt.
Very little was published in coeval accounts. Many current National Guard members are unaware of these events in Alaska aviation history. The Alaska Army National Guard was the first in the nation to begin an aviation component. The plane was coming from the Army. It had been stationed in Panama and re-fitted and overhauled in California.
U-8D plane, similar to that ferried to AKARNG.
En route to AK the U8-D [See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Beechcraft_L-23_Seminole] developed engine problems, declared an emergency, and landed in Whitehorse, Yukon Territory. The Army in Fresno was still responsible for repairs to return the U8-D to airworthy condition. However, on the repair flight to Whitehorse with the U-8 engine, the DC-3 itself lost an engine and landed at Ft Lewis, Washington.
Finally, when word was received at Ft Richardson that the U8-D was nearing airworthiness, Henault, Caldwell, and Alex flew to Whitehorse to continue the ferry mission. After a few delays, all was OK and they launched February 19 from Whitehorse to Kulis ANGB [Air National Guard Base], Anchorage.
MAJ Henault [http://www.smokejumpers.com/obituaries/item.php?obituaries_id=545 ] was the Pilot in Command/Instructor Pilot conducting a multi-engine plane transition as well as qualifying LTC Caldwell in the U-8. Caldwell was only a single engine qualified pilot at that time. Henault was not in the Guard but Active Duty US ARMY stationed at Ft Richardson. MSG Alex was the first aviation mechanic for AKARNG,.
The evening of February 19 was the annual Adjutant General’s Ball at the Elmendorf AFB Officers Club. A radio call came in from LTC Caldwell asking that his wife be contacted and advised that they would be running a little late. Could she please lay out his dress blues for attendance at the annual AG’s Ball?
This was the last known contact with the U8-D, approximately five minutes prior to impact.
A search was launched on Saturday. Ordinarily the flight would have been through Northway. A check of all local airports along the route had been conducted with negative results. On Sunday, an Air Force C-130 located the wreckage on Mt Sanford.
Rescue and recovery attempts were made but due to continuous poor weather, the mission was greatly delayed. Weather in Anchorage dropped to double digits below zero that following week of Fur Rendezvous. Ray Genet, the Talkeetna mountain climber, Mt McKinley’s first guide, and Rex Post, a Pan American World Airways captain on leave, also a mountaineer, were dropped off from an Army helicopter at the 15,500 foot level in an attempt to reach the wreckage.
Genet had been on the mountain about a week before the weather broke, allowing him access to the aircraft. He had holed up in an emergency snow cave within about 400 yards of the aircraft. Post got altitude sickness and died on the mountain. [http://www.smokejumpers.com/obituaries/item.php?obituaries_id=39]. Genet had frostbitten hands from the recovery effort. He died in 1979 while descending Mount Everest. [http://wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Ray_Genet]
Later, the US Army, the AKARNG, and the families decided that if all the remains could not be recovered, they would all rest in place on the mountain. They remain so today. “Whiskey Charley” is in the left seat, Herb is in the seat behind the P/CP [pilot/co-pilot] seats and Steve lies about 100 feet below the severed right wing.
A real tragedy and great loss to the AKARNG, Caldwell and Alex were very dedicated soldiers. The Nome, AK Armory was later dedicated to LTC Caldwell for his time and service as the Commander of the 1st Scout BN [Scout Battalion].
Alex was the grandson and son of Eklutna traditional leaders and his children also served in the AKARNG. In the mid-1980s, there was an effort to dedicate the AKARNG Aviation Hanger at Ft Richardson (Bryant Airfield) to MSG Alex, but nothing came of it.
The 20 ft air traffic control tower was built in 1961. It is Building 4800. The State Historic Preservation Officer lists the tower as site AK-ANC-01095
Today, the 50 year-old air traffic control tower at the airfield is about to be modified and its distinctive pattern (the last such tower in Alaska) obliterated. Alaska National Guard heritage, which is also Alaska heritage, is little known outside of the living participants’ memory. And, of course, so much of our National Guard history is oral, not written, such as the Alaska Territorial Guard of 70 years ago. We’ve never had trained scholars to gather and analyze the oral histories. The documents and structures of this heritage are not kept, much less preserved for current and future Alaskans and NG to learn from.
It would be nice if the 40th anniversary of this loss could be remembered by the state and would stimulate further interest and professional research.
My thanks to David J Mock, John Spalding, and other Alaska veterans and to the family of Herbert Alex (sister Julia Cooper and daughter Eleanor Wilde, also a NG veteran) for their first-hand accounts which went into this post.
This was originally posted at https://www.facebook.com/pages/Alaska-National-Guard-Heritage/121826611217021
Mrs Elizabeth L.J. Alex http://www.alaskastar.com/stories/011405/obi_20050114024.shtml
ARMY AIR CREWS: Fixed Wing Aviation Crewmembers Line of Duty Deaths http://www.armyaircrews.com/fixed.html
A University Engaged With its Community The Search for Dena’ina … http://www.uaa.alaska.edu/alumni/upload/Spring07.pdf
The Complete 1957 Gustavus/Juneau Plane Crash Story by Rita Wilson, http://www.gustavushistory.org/articles/view.aspx?id=10000
By John M. Glionna April 5, 2009 Reporting from Seoul — Defying weeks of international pressure, North Korea launched a multistage rocket today, a move that the U.S. and its allies fear masked a test of its ability to deliver nuclear weapons.
Fortunately, it was just a rocket test, although falling debris is bad enough. See the earlier post, Where is… Bethel from Pyongyang
Before Google Earth and Terraserver and the rest was the PARC research lab of Xerox (inventor of the mouse and of GUI, I believe). They no longer run the map.
I still prefer their perspective to depict spatial relationships in many contexts. Here is plotted Fairbanks Alaska (red square), the Yukon River in Alaska, the International Dateline (purple line), and the rest of the US.
Just a step over the dateline, where it passes closest to Alaska, is Russia. Juneau is about 3 meridians east. Wasilla is about the lower west corner of the red square.
This is the best map to show the relationship of Alaska to the lower 48. National geographic has overlaid Alaska such that it demonstrates Alaska stretches from Jacksonville FL to San Francisco CA. I’ve added markers for Russia and Little Diomede, Bethel, Wasilla, and Juneau.
- Where in Alaska relative to US 48 – https://ykalaska.wordpress.com/2006/03/31/where-in-alaska-relative-to-us-48/
The National Geographic Society’s incorporation of illustration with relief cartography portrays the grandeur and uniqueness of the Alaskan landscape in relation to towns, highways, and parks. Regarded as pioneering map illustrators, the National Geographic Society frequently adopts this techniques in maps produced as part of its exploration studies. This Alaska map was included as a supplement to the May 1994 issue of the National Geographic magazine.
Site Search Tags: Sarah+Palin, Russia, maps, Diomede, International+experience, McCain-Palin
A good summary of recent events of former Gov. Palin is Palin Resigns: Exit stage right
A good summary of Gov. Palin in Alaska is
- Sarah Palin, A View From Anchorage Listen Now [41 min 28 sec] add to playlist Fresh Air from WHYY, October 15, 2008 · Supporters and detractors alike can’t seem to get enough of Republican vice presidential candidate Sarah Palin. Anchorage Daily News columnist Michael Carey discusses the woman who promises to bring “a little bit of reality from Wasilla Main Street” to Washington, DC.
Local results for ‘Palin’ using the search box. You may also use the site search tag in each post, Sarah+Palin.
WordPress.com doesn’t have the best internal search engine, but I’m usually good about using the tags correctly. If you want to know more about Alaska and Alaska Natives, including Eskimo people, especially Yup’ik people of the Yukon Kuskokwim Nushagak region, try using the categories in the sidebar or the site search tags at the bottom of each post.
The Nushagak River is in the Bristol Bay region (Dillingham is the hub. The link opens in a new window) from which Todd Palin’s family comes.
- Where is… Palin and bridge to Nowhere Alaska
- Where is… Wasilla (Gov. Sarah Palin’s residence)
- Most popular in 2007, 2008 YKWP (boring post)
- Electricity disaster declarations in Alaska
- Tsunami Awareness Week
- Bethel “town hall” meeting on AGIA
- Gov. Palin 2008 State of the State address
- Ask the Governor (maybe in Bethel)
- Briefs 4
- Mass disease pass, 2007
- Rhonda McBride appointed rural advisor to Gov. Palin
- E-mail the Governor
Our terrific state-wide public radio network is offering a reprise of their hour-long show about Governor Palin. Listen here, AK: Sarah Palin, Revisited
- Todd Palin, Sarah Palin’s husband, and rural Alaska living
- https://ykalaska.wordpress.com/2008/08/30/sarah-palin-content/(This post)
- Where is… Sarah Palin foreign experience (Russia)
Because Gov. Palin has offered her credentials as commander of the National Guard, here is the category for related posts here– Eskimo Guard For those who have read several news stories quoting the Alaska Business Journal Monthly story, March 2007 (? looking for the original article), the end of 2006, on the Governor’s response to the Iraq surge, may be interested in this post, What impact will Iraq war call-up have from June 2006. State governors don’t usually have much involvement in US wars, and naturally would be more interested in state affairs. But this US war has called up our National Guardsmen.
“Alaska is on the map” is the recent slogan. Actually, Alaska has always been on the map. In fact, all over the map and maps. Click the category maps to find out where all we’ve been put now.
Other reasonable writings (i.e., respectful and insightful) —
Read Writing Raven on Sarah Palin and Alaska Native Issues
Mudflats on photos of Wasilla, church in Wasilla, global photogs and newsmedia in Wasilla, et al. Sarah Palin’s Preacher Problem. End Times Coming?
Shannyn Moore, also an Alaska woman, daughter of teachers, “Bitter-Proud”? (hard to read theme so use your own style sheet)
Andrew Halcro, Palin for VP: The S.W.O.T Analysis, who keeps up with bailouts of local dairies, “troopergate”, Governor’s gasline to be built by foreigners.
Good grief. I have overlooked the O’Folks off their Rocker much earlier post over at —
- Gov Sarah Palin call-in KYUK (January 2008)
- Sarah Palin, the elderly, the disabled, older Americans and rural Alaska ( Sept 2, 2008)
This is a good summary, from Slate. The Sarah Palin FAQ Everything you ever wanted to know about the Republican vice presidential nominee. By Derek Thompson Posted Thursday, Sept. 4, 2008, at 5:39 PM ET
has consistently provided balanced and accurate information. Listen to him at NPR,
Site Search Tags: Palin, Sarah+Palin, Bristol+Bay, Dillingham, Yup’ik, Nushagak, McCain+Palin, revised
of the ladybugs I mentioned earlier
Along with the ladybug, he posted a photo of what most of us would call a dragonfly or maybe a darningneedle or damselfly.
It is a bluet, but not the flower.
Of course, I had to find out what kind of dragonfly it was or whether it was a darningneedle (and was there a difference between darning needles, damselflies, and dragonflies?). Turns out to be a bluet. I think it is a taiga bluet.
I had no idea that Alaska had that many related insects. Nor that our state insect isn’t the mosquito but the 4-spotted skimmer, a dragonfly.
- Dragonflies of Alaska by John Hudson and Robert H. Armstrong is the local reference, Todd Communications, 203 W. 15th Ave. Suite 102, Anchorage, AK 99510, for $12.95. ISBN:1-57833-302-4 available at TitleWave
- http://www.turtlepuddle.org/alaskan/dragonflies.html “Dragonflies of Alaska” is a website with great photos (not related to the book)
- Digital Dragonflies with photos by family. This site is related to the book, A Dazzle of Dragonflies which one really needs in a natural history library. They also explain how to get those dazzling photos (flatbed scanner).
by Forrest L. Mitchell and James L. Lasswell
# Hardcover: 224 pages
# Publisher: Texas A&M University Press (April 30, 2005)
# Language: English
# ISBN-10: 1585444596
# ISBN-13: 978-1585444595
# Product Dimensions: 11.2 x 8.8 x 0.8 inches
- Field Key to Adult Alaska Dragonflies Dennis Paulson Slater Museum of Natural History University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA 98416 Revised Feb. 2004
Site Search Tags: bluets, bugs, insects, damselfly, dragonfly, photography, Kuskokwim, Bethel, tundra, taiga, whatdoino-steve
After 15 good years, the Dog Who Smiles (Tewa terrier, from Española to Bethel) developed kidney disease. Among her contributions to innumerable neighbor kids, alpaca camp, her cat, and myself, she left just as the swallows were arriving. For the first time I could put up a bird box, jerryrigged but evidently acceptable.
The box is placed on the north side of the house to keep it from getting too hot. There is a hinge so I can clean the box after the birds leave, about the 2nd or 3rd week in July (keeps pests and parasites down for next year.) I still don’t know why the birds start so many nests in different boxes and why so many birds try to build in the same box. It’s also hard to tell who the parents are supposed to be as there seems to be more than one pair involved with this box. I recorded the sounds from the box and the approaching adults, but it is tedious to edit so will provide a link later.
The mud swallows come later than these swallows which are among the earliest birds to arrive and they therefore leave about 2 weeks later. I once had the mud swallows build in a hole in the west wall of the house, but only that once.
For some reason, I and others around town have noticed fewer birds, big and little, than in years past. It’s not just because people build on the tundra or fill in the ponds or drive too fast on the dirt roads. Maybe it is just this colder spring.
Sanitation is important to birds and other animals like us. Click on these images to see the larger versions.
This bird is carrying out the fecal sack from the nest. I used the binoculars one time to watch as one adult arrived. The adult inside the box deftly turned and neatly defecated the anuk bag so the arriving adult could take it away.
Fecal bag. When I have been watching, the birds will take the sack out of sight behind the neighbors, towards the tundra pond (“naturally constructed wetlands system”)
Fecal splat. The usual kind of bird dropping.
With spring and break-up just around the corner (please, please, please!) one thing we often forget until too late are family heirlooms, photos, records, manuscripts and so on. Heritage Emergency National Task Force special day is aimed at more formal institutions, but every home or tribal office would benefit from considering emergency preparedness for tangible cultural resources.
If you are in Alaska, contact the state museum in Juneau which has a grant to help local museums with preservation and documentation efforts. Bruce Kato, Chief Curator (bruce DOTkato AT alaska DOTgov),
Telephone: (907) 465-4866, http://www.museums.state.ak.us
April is also Alaska Archaeology Month. This year’s theme is archaeology associated with travel along the National Historic Iditarod Trail.
Archives, libraries, museums, and historic preservation organizations across America are setting aside May 1 to participate in MayDay, a national effort to protect collections from disasters…. Here are some ideas from the Heritage Emergency National Task Force:
- * If you have a disaster plan, dust it off and bring it up to date.
- * If you don’t have a plan, make a timeline for developing one.
- * Get to know your local firefighters and police. Invite them to tour your institution and give pointers on safety and preparedness. A poster outlining tips for working with emergency responders ( www.heritagepreservation.org/catalog/) is available from the Task Force.
- * Identify the three biggest risks to your collection or building (such as leaking water pipe, heavy snow, or power failure) and outline steps to mitigate them.
- * Conduct a building evacuation drill and evaluate the results.
- * Update your staff contact information and create a wallet-size version of your emergency contact roster. See the Pocket Response PlanTM (PRePTM) at www.statearchivists.org/prepare/framework/prep.htm.
- * Eliminate hazards such as storage in hallways, blocked fire exits, or improper storage of paints or solvents.
- * Provide staff with easily accessible disaster response information, such as www.heritageemergency.org.
- * Join forces with nearby institutions and agree to assist each other in case of a disaster.
- * Establish a method of identifying objects that are most important to your mission, irreplaceable, or most fragile, making evacuation simpler when disaster hits.
- * Register for a free course to learn how your institution fits into existing emergency response protocols. A list is available at www.heritagepreservation.org/lessons/courses.html…
Heritage Preservation is offering its popular Field Guide to Emergency Response and Emergency Response and Salvage Wheel at special MayDay sale prices from April 15 to May 31.
Cangerlaagpiit (Epidemics) — historical lessons
Alaska History reading list
Alaska history books
Alaska Territorial Guard celebrates 60th anniversary
Lydia T. Black 1925 to 2007
Letters from 1918 SW Alaska British Columbia
Dog-Team Doctor 2
another sneeze video
Jesse Lee Home, Alaska and the pandemic of 1919
More historical resources (Brevig Mission)
More historical pandemic resources (Michigan archives)
Online curriculum for Alaska high school students about their state