Influenza in Alaska: Hearings Before the Committee on Appropriations, United States Senate, 65th Congress, Third Session on S.J. Resolution 199, A Joint Resolution for Relief in Alaska By United States Congress. Senate. Committee on Appropriations

http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC06258712&id=5JRLJryArpcC&q= congress+1919+alaska&dq=congress+1919+alaska&num=100&pgis=1

Influenza in Alaska and Porto Rico: Hearings Before Subcommittee of House Committee on… By United States, Congress, Committee on Appropriations, House, United States Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations

http://books.google.com/books?vid=OCLC45724840&id=RC8p0LnIcCsC&dq= congress+1919+alaska&num=100

This is the same as the first reference, but includes additional materials on Puerto Rico. The copy is not as good as the first version.

When I can get it done, I will showcase some excerpts. The testimony is interesting because Alaska had two waves of the influenza (like everyone else); the worse year was 1919; the bickering between the state (Territory) and the Feds (Congress) over who would pay or “be responsible” for Native peoples. The argument over who does or does not pay taxes was hard to follow without knowing the background. I found the answer as to why the Bureau of Education ran the schools and Native affairs instead of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The number of deaths and orphaned children was pretty appalling, and this was prior to the pandemic hitting the Kuskokwim.

However, looking at the funding, the readiness, the transportation, and the self-education about disease aspects — we are not in much better shape now than then. Except we know now that influenza is an infectious disease.

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